It becomes the first man made object to impact Venus on March 1, 1966. It finally succeeded in 1949 and this began a nuclear arms race, with both sides racing to develop more and bigger bombs. Luna 9 becomes the first spacecraft to soft-land on the Moon. Nov. 3 - USSR launches Sputnik 2 which carried a small dog named Laika into orbit.This was the second thing and the first animal to go into orbit. this then started space race which was apart of the cold war. When the Soviet Union rejected the proposal, Eisenhower sought other ways to gather intelligence. But on January 31, 1958, America began to catch up publicly to the Soviet Union. president wouldn’t be able to resist their arguments for limitless military spending. This was demonstrated during the Korean War when President Truman sacked General MacArthur for arguing in favour of using nuclear weapons to end that war. has made a leap forward.in the space race. In a top-secret report, Eisenhower's Science Advisory Committee urged him to consider launching non-military satellites, which, unlike planes, could travel over enemy terrain without risk of being shot down. Both the United States and the Soviet Union repeatedly claimed to be ahead of the other in space exploration. In July 1955, President Dwight Eisenhower proposed an "Open Skies" policy whereby either nation would be allowed to fly reconnaissance aircraft over the other. On May 5, 1961, Shepard piloted the Freedom 7 mission and became the second person, and the first American, to travel into space. The USA then sent Pioneer 4 to do a fly-past of the Moon, prompting the Soviets to launch Luna 2 at the moon. As an army general, he felt able to resist their pressure, but he was concerned that a future civilian president wouldn’t be able to resist their arguments for limitless military spending. By 1959, both countries had set their sights on a new symbolic goal—being first to the moon. the final mission was when Gordon Cooper flew around the earth twenty two times. Sign in, choose your GCSE subjects and see content that's tailored for you. The USA deploys Polaris submarines capable of launching nuclear missiles close to the shore of the USSR, The USSR detonates the Tsar Bomba, a nuclear bomb which produced the largest ever man-made explosion, The Cuban Missile Crisis – for 13 days the world stood on the edge of nuclear war, The USSR develops an Anti-Ballistic Missile system to shoot down in-bound US missiles, The USA develops MIRV technology - allowing missile warheads to hit multiple targets from one missile. This said that the existence of such massive nuclear weapons meant that open war between the superpowers, in which nuclear weapons were used, would end life on earth. John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth, aboard Friendship 7 on February 20, 1962, on the Mercury-Atlas 6 mission, circling the globe three times during a flight lasting 4 hours, 55 minutes, and 23 seconds. Just a month after propelling the first satellite into space, the Soviet Union had made headlines again with Sputnik 2, which sent the first animal, a dog, into orbit. the begining of the first missions that the United States started to put men in space to counter the Soviet Union's missions in space. The Soviet Union immediately announced that it too would launch a satellite. This was demonstrated during the Korean War when President Truman sacked General MacArthur for arguing in favour of using nuclear weapons to end that war.