Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris (CNRS/UPMC), France Such high-energy emission correlates spatially quite well with the Galactic Haze seen at much lower energies; the two might indeed be a manifestation of the same population of electrons via different radiation processes. Nevertheless, just as they had 380 000 years after the Big Bang, these encounters between electrons and photons left a tell-tale imprint on the polarisation of the CMB. In a companion paper these results are discussed in the context of the best-fit Planck ΛCDM cosmological model and recent models of reionization. This is exactly what happened when the CMB originated in the early Universe. Planck intermediate results. "The insights into the Galactic Haze and the CO distribution that are being provided by Planck give us a fresh view on the intricate network of processes taking place in the ISM in our Galaxy," comments Tauber. “From our measurements of the most distant galaxies and quasars, we know that the process of reionisation was complete by the time that the Universe was about 900 million years old,” says George Efstathiou of the University of Cambridge, UK. “Planck has measured this signal for the first time at high resolution over the entire sky, producing the unique maps released today.”. remain unknown, such as why the temperature fluctuations seem to be "To take advantage of both the excellent quality and complexity of Planck measurements, new foreground separation methods were developed by the members of Planck Collaboration," he adds. This later end of the Dark Ages also implies that it might be easier to detect the very first generation of galaxies with the next generation of observatories, including the James Webb Space Telescope. Phone: +1-818-648-9670 Further studies will allow a detailed investigation of the physical and chemical conditions that lead to the formation of molecular clouds, shedding new light on the very early phases of star formation. However, when combining the newest all-sky Planck data with those latest results, the limits on the amount of primordial gravitational waves are pushed even further down to achieve the best upper limits yet. is mostly composed of mysterious and unfamiliar What is our universe made of? The Planck data have delved into the even earlier history of the cosmos, all the way to inflation – the brief era of accelerated expansion that the Universe underwent when it was a tiny fraction of a second old. This posed a problem. NASA Web The newly liberated electrons were once again able to collide with the light from the CMB, albeit much less frequently now that the Universe had significantly expanded. WMAP satellite, and the estimated that evolved in specific ways. Email: francois.boulangerias.u-psud.fr, Jan Tauber The Planck Scientific Collaboration consists of all the scientists who have contributed to the development of the mission, and who participate in the scientific exploitation of the data during the proprietary period. reported last week, confirm again that most of our universe Tel: +33 1 4432 8095Email: bouchet@iap.fr, Marco Bersanelli 6 June 2019 ESA's Planck satellite has found no new evidence for the puzzling cosmic anomalies that appeared in its temperature map of the Universe. The most important of these tracers is carbon monoxide (CO), which emits a number of rotational emission lines in the frequency range probed by Planck's High Frequency Instrument (HFI). New data, including temperature maps of the CMB at all nine frequencies observed by Planck and polarisation maps at four frequencies (30, 44, 70 and 353 GHz), are also released today. “In that case, we would have needed additional, more exotic sources of energy to explain the history of reionisation,” says Professor Efstathiou. Both synchrotron and free-free radiation are most intense at the lowest frequencies probed by Planck. A major source of information used to piece together this story is the Cosmic Microwave Background, or CMB, the fossil light resulting from a time when the Universe was hot and dense, only 380 000 years after the Big Bang. “After the CMB was released, the Universe was still very different from the one we live in today, and it took a long time until the first stars were able to form,” explains Marco Bersanelli of Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy. A careful and complex process of data 'cleaning' is necessary to peel away the 'layers' of foreground emission in order to access the CMB's rich reservoir of cosmological information. But some CO lines are so bright that they actually dominate the total amount of light collected by certain detectors on Planck when they are pointed towards a molecular cloud. And as their light interacted with gas in the Universe, more and more of the atoms were turned back into their constituent particles: electrons and protons. cosmic microwave background The improvements allow us to determine the cosmic reionization optical depth τ using, for the first time, the low-multipole EE data from HFI, reducing significantly the central value and uncertainty, and hence the upper limit. Warsaw University Observatory, Poland Privacy Policy and Important Notices. A series of scientific papers describing the new results was published on 5 February and it can be downloaded here. ESA Science & Technology - Planck intermediate results. ESA, The Netherlands Papers by the Planck Collaboration, categorized into groups: Planck 2018 results /Planck 2015 results /Joint BICEP2 Keck Planck 2015 results /Planck 2013 results / Planck intermediate results (2012 -...) / Planck early results (2011) / Pre-launch results (2010) / Technical results (2003 - ...) / The Scientific Programme of Planck(2005) 2. Privacy Policy and Important Notices Scientists from the Planck collaboration have published the results from the analysis of these data in a large number of scientific papers over the past two years, confirming the standard cosmological picture of our Universe with ever greater accuracy. Another source of foreground emission seen by Planck is represented by molecular clouds, the dense and compact regions throughout the Milky Way where gas and dust clump together. strangely dark. New maps from ESA’s Planck satellite uncover the ‘polarised’ light from the early Universe across the entire sky, revealing that the first stars formed much later than previously thought. Fortunately for astronomers, these four radiation processes exhibit quite different spectral properties. The largest CO surveys thus far have concentrated on mapping the full extent of the Galactic Plane, where most clouds are concentrated, leaving large areas of the sky unobserved. The gray outline shows the extent of the confidence mask. The mysterious Galactic Haze (left) and the all-sky distribution of molecular gas (right) seen by Planck. Tel: +44 1223 337530Email: gpe@ast.cam.ac.uk. "Thanks to Planck's high frequency measurements we can better characterise thermal dust emission, and this, combined with refined data-analysis tools, means that the detection of the Galactic Haze is now unambiguous," adds Davide Pietrobon from JPL/Caltech, another Planck team member.