Fundamental characteristics of living organism are: Life as the inherent capacity of living organisms to utilise the outside materials (light, water, gases or food) for energy, growth and reproduction through chemical reactions (metabolism) in a controlled manner. The current consensus about the origin of life is that life began from self-replicating molecules, which eventually made up the complex biochemistry of today’s life. (�� (1) Theory of special creation: It stated that life was created by the wishes of a divine being or some supernatural power, the Creator or God out of nothing at a particular time in the remote past. (�� They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. Any population has built in variation in characteristics. However, during the industrial revolution, the pollution killed off the lichens and darkened the trees with soot. The first cellular form of life possibly did not come into existence till about 2000 million years ago. Welcome to Class 10: Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room. It is not based on scientific facts. However, there were rudimentary ideas and suggestions which hinted at the same, but in a much broader and generalized sense. Each organism has to struggle for its day to day survival. LUCA is not the first organism to ever live, but one among the many. (�� Haldane proposed an explanation for the chemical evolution of life. The earliest molecules have been the formed gases and inorganic compounds, lightning or volcanic eruptions. ���{˘��ci&��U{� �Z�4ydX�FwrUFI'��/º�-^[���p7����A�}��)����Ph�jA����;�����M[y)�%B�PP�z����Q��B�zazaz ��0�FZ��I�#���$� ���էo��N|�aR�����`d����`��w+�lP���@�jt1Mp� �IX��X�׊�`�t�7l����o� г�������UF 5 0 obj The latter kept revolving round the sun in different elliptical orbits. And they’re ready for you to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them. Those with more suitable traits are selected by the nature. The first cellular form of life possibly did not come into existence till about 2000 million years ago. �N��d�R-1jE��H)��(�)��(ž)��(�P(��(��(��(��(��(���� Z)(�B�IE -�P1i(�� Since then, it is being widely accepted that life originates, several times in various parts of the galaxy in universe and it reached the barren earth from some other, heavenly body in the form of resistant spores or seeds. Microbial fossils are one of the earliest known fossils and it dates back to 3.4 billion years. A closed tank was filled with CH4, H2, NH3 and water vapor. stream That is how many species become extinct and some species continue to evolve over a period of time. The liquid was heated to initiate evaporation and electrodes were used to create electric discharge. LUCA was most likely an extremophile, living near the hellish volcanic vents of the ancient oceans. ���� JFIF ` ` �� C (���Q@Q@!��4 �Q�Hj3@�B¦j����\?�|4��5���?z�>iW��~d} ���W�sM;��We�o ��IukC��mӡ���'�b}:q�iܐ��)�QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE QE9�uDR�� This theory is also called, Because of hazards like low temperatures, very high influx of cosmic and UV radiation, lack of, atmosphere, extreme dryness etc, that exist in the interplanetary space and are not conducive to life, this, originated from inanimate matter by a series of chemical reactions on the primitive earth. and crocodiles could form from the moist soil (mud) of the river. <>/Pattern<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S>> Remember to set your channel to 80! Throughout the earth’s 4.5 billion year history, many organisms have evolved and eventually gone extinct. Finally, blue ants could survive and proliferated in the surrounding. - C it showed that clay can catalyze the production of RNA. (�� God created the universe, plants, animals and human beings in six natural days. )-,3:J>36F7,-@WAFLNRSR2>ZaZP`JQRO�� C&&O5-5OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO�� ��" �� Conversely, the light coloured moths became rarer until they were no longer found. Natural selection is a key mechanism of evolution. The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth. This primary abiogenesis is thought to have occurred about 3.6 billion (3600 million) years ago. (�� Situations changed and plenty of food became available. The earth was covered with water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia. The first non-cellular forms of life could have originated about 3 billion years ago; in the form of giant molecules, e.g. What are we going to discuss today? Had he taken examples of hippos or cows, he may have had more success (cows, hippos and whales actually belong to the same order – Artiodactyla, making these animals unlikely relatives). This big explosion threw out numerous pieces of, cosmic material (nebulae) which slowly condensed and became organized slowly into groups of stars called. (�� (�� Overview • The formation of Earth • Pre-biotic chemistry (Miller-Urey exp.) Darwin proposed the concept of survival of the fittest. One day, an elephant came and trampled the bushes. Louis Pasteur (1862) who experimentally proved that microorganisms, such as protists and bacteria, arise, from the pre-existing microorganisms of their kind. This is supported by endobj x�u�MK�@���s�)t�ُ|xT� �_��C�IiL��w��`/���33�[�m�akM�5�����|M�Nn�Pt ,{8� �/���11�'TN"u��\�,em����������>ϩy=�V�q�G��K��,)ö.�b�[8������)��W���V?lF�N����7]������fd-~P���}�����r�6Mu����j��$P��(�q��n����dt�s���^A�2���`g��הw:�M%�C&�c���3�]��{�a������=q�E]�����N������l���Q��ʪ#�؋�A�+�"��Ll��^J7h?��ⓦN���H�^w_Z���� o�J This resulted in extinction of red ants but blue ants could continue their race. At the end of two weeks, some organic molecules were formed in the setup. Organisms which are better fit in an environment leave more progeny than others. endstream - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. Author of this website, Mrs Shilpi Nagpal is MSc (Hons, Chemistry) and BSc (Hons, Chemistry) from Delhi University, B.Ed (I. P. University) and has many years of experience in teaching. Natural Selection can lead to the process of evolution, where a group of organisms with certain characteristics have a much higher chance of survival than other groups. A species is a group of organisms in which most of the characters are similar and members of a species are able to breed among themselves. Overview • The formation of Earth • Pre-biotic chemistry (Miller-Urey exp.) Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey, conducted the Miller-Urey experiment in 1953 to demonstrate how the life would have originated on the earth. Haldane (1928). <>>>/Length 32>> Sun is one of the millions of stars of our, was formed about 4-5 billion (4500 million), movement threw a ring of cloud which kept, whole matter condensed under the force of, its own gravity to become a flattened spinning, became hotter and brighter due to conversion, of gravitational energy into heat. Most of the eggs are either washed away or are eaten by predators. I. Oparin (1923) and J.B.S. These galaxies appear to be moving away from one another at a speed nearly equal to the speed of light.Our galaxy is called Akash Ganga or The Milky Way. 4 0 obj (�� Manu and Shradha were the first man and woman respectively. However, some portion of eggs from the spawn develops into tadpoles. (�� Life appeared on earth about 4 billion years back. Situation 1: A group of red ants is living in a bush. One of the best examples that substantiate the process of natural selection is the evolution of whales. The latter grew and then evolved into various existing forms. Thus, first form of life gradually evolved from non-living molecules. Your email address will not be published. Ants once again developed to their normal size. endobj Water, methane, ammonia and hydrogen were used in that experiment. 12. Q.2. These clumps finally swept up more particles and grew into different sized planets. One of the most important concepts in biology, natural selection describes how an organism adapts to its environment. In this case, the change in size was a change in phenotype and hence was not inheritable. Our galaxy is called Akash Ganga or The Milky Way. Because of hazards like low temperatures, very high influx of cosmic and UV radiation, lack of atmosphere, extreme dryness etc, that exist in the interplanetary space and are not conducive to life, this theory of origin of life was rejected. Speciation: The process of origin of a new species is called speciation. (3) Cosmozoic or interplanetary theory: life could have originated once or several times in various parts of the galaxy in universe and it reached the barren earth from some other heavenly body in the form of resistant spores or seeds. High temperature, lightening and solar radiations provided energy required for chemical reactions In olden days, people believed that the universe and life on it was an act and result of God’s creation. �<3�}�cԮO�]s endstream The primitive inorganic molecules later interacted with, another to form simple organic compounds, namely, sugars, fatty acids, glycerol, amino acids and organic, bases (purines and pyrimidines).