Pele, the largest known volcano on Io, is also much larger, at roughly 4 times the surface area, but is considerably flatter. Northwest of the volcano, the aureole extends a distance of up to 750 km (470 mi) and is known as Lycus Sulci (24°36′N 219°00′E / 24.600°N 219.000°E / 24.600; 219.000). The edifice is about 600 km (370 mi) wide. In pictures taken early in the Mariner 9 mission, this region, shows a dark mountain standing above the Martian dust storm. The extensional stresses in the detachment zones can produce giant landslides and normal faults on the volcano's flanks, leading to the formation of a basal escarpment. Instrument Resolution (pixels): 700 x 832, 9 bit See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive, Uploaded by The depth of this depression is greater on the northwest side of the mountain than on the southeast side. The high elevations preclude parachute-assisted landings because the atmosphere is insufficiently dense to slow the spacecraft down. Levees are quite common to lava flows on Mars. The Mariner 9 mission was terminated on Oct. 27, 1972, but the spacecraft was set into a long-lasting orbit that will eventually send the it crashing through the Martian atmosphere. Numerical models of particle dynamics involving lateral differences in friction along the base of Olympus Mons have been shown to reproduce the volcano's present shape and asymmetry fairly well. It is often cited as the largest volcano in the Solar System. Une plate-forme de balayage est montée au bas de la plate-forme, sur laquelle sont attachés les instruments scientifiques (caméras de télévision grand angle et angle étroit, radiomètre infrarouge, spectromètre ultraviolet et spectromètre à interféromètre infrarouge - IRIS). The volcano's basal escarpment is prominent. Mariner 9 est lancé le 30 mai 1971 à 22 h 23 min 04 s TU sur une trajectoire d'ascension directe de 398 millions de km vers la planète Mars par le lanceur Atlas-Centaur (AC-23) depuis l'aire de lancement LC-36 B, à la base de lancement de Cap Kennedy. A wide, annular depression or moat about 2 km (1.2 mi) deep surrounds the base of Olympus Mons and is thought to be due to the volcano's immense weight pressing down on the Martian crust. The multiple … Two impact craters on Olympus Mons have been assigned provisional names by the International Astronomical Union. A subterranean rift may develop at the base of the volcano, causing the underlying crust to spread apart. Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, arrived at Mars on Nov. 14, 1971, and returned remarkable images of the surface. Alba Mons, northeast of Olympus Mons, has roughly 19 times the surface area, but is only about one third the height. The basic morphology is similar to terrestrial calderas, although the scale is much larger. This shield volcano on the Red Planet's surface reveals a summit crater and grooves believed to be from subsurface magma flows. Elle devient le premier véhicule spatial à se mettre en orbite autour d'une autre planète, battant de peu les sondes soviétiques Mars 2 et Mars 3, qui arrivent moins d'un mois après. This higher resolution photograph shows that the area contains a complex crater, called Olympus Mons (Nix Olympica or Snows of Olympus), nearly 64 kilometers (40 miles) in diameter. Observations of the planet from Mariner 9 confirmed that Nix Olympica was a volcano. Avec l'épuisement de ses réserves de diazote destiné au contrôle d'attitude, il devient impossible de maintenir l'orientation de la sonde et elle est donc abandonnée sur une orbite qui la fera plonger dans l'atmosphère de Mars vers 2020[1],[2].