I care not, your Honor, whether the march begins at the gallows or when the gates of Joliet close upon them, there is nothing but the night, and that is little for any human being to expect. I was safe because I was too old to go. Wouldn't it be a glorious triumph for the State's Attorney? Should he be considered? Leopold responded that he did not wish his story told in fictionalized form, but offered Levin a chance to contribute to his own memoir, which was in progress. ' {if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod? When questioned about the glasses, Leopold said that he must have lost them on one of his frequent birding expeditions. The guilty plea also meant that the sentencing decision would be made by a judge, not by a jury. Darrow reminded Judge Caverly of the defendants' youth, genetic inheritance, surging sexual impulses, and the many external influences that had led them to the commission of their crime. . Loeb was especially fond of history and was doing graduate work in the subject at the time of his murder. It is not surprising that the public responded to a trial that involved the kidnapping and murder of a young boy from one of Chicago's most prominent families, a bizarre relationship between two promising scholars-turned-murderers, what the prosecutor called an "act of Providence" leading to the apprehension of the teenage defendants, dueling psychiatrists, and an experienced and sharp-tongued state's attorney bent on hanging the confessed killers in spite of their relative youth. None of us are unmindful of the public; courts are not, and juries are not. When Darrow finally ended his appeal, according to one newspaper account, tears were streaming down the face of Judge Caverly and many other courtroom spectators. Neither the defense's theory that the murder was an effort by both to deepen their relationship nor the prosecution's theory that money to pay off gambling debts and a desire by Loeb to "have something" on Leopold in order to counter Leopold's unwanted demands for sex, are likely accurate. Leopold believed that he and especially Loeb were these individuals, and as such, by his interpretation of Nietzsche's doctrines, they were not bound by any of society's normal ethics or rules. [6][44], While some have claimed that newsman Ed Lahey wrote this clever lead for the Chicago Daily News – "Richard Loeb, despite his erudition, today ended his sentence with a proposition"[45][46] – no evidence that this lead was ever published has been found, and actual copy from that date reads otherwise. This case may not be as important as I think it is, and I am sure I do not need to tell this court, or to tell my friends that I would fight just as hard for the poor as for the rich. They had an unusual hinge and could be traced to a single Chicago optometrist, who had written only three such prescriptions, including the one to Leopold. Motives are often unclear, and they are in this trial. But what have they to look forward to? Most evidence suggests that Loeb, sitting in the rear seat behind Franks, reached his hand around Bobby's mouth to stifle his cries, then struck the boy with several times on his head with a chisel. I am pleading for the future; I am pleading for a time when hatred and cruelty will not control the hearts of men. How long will it take the callused hearts of men before the scars of hatred and cruelty shall be removed? Awkward-looking Nathan Leopold tended to hide in his friend's shadow. It was Darrow's decision to change the boys' initial pleas to the charges of murder and kidnapping from "not guilty" (suggesting a traditional insanity defense) to "guilty." Unlike Leopold, he was not overly interested in intellectual pursuits, preferring to socialize, play tennis, and read detective novels.[6][11]. Have they any rights? But the two young men formed a powerful bond. I have stood here for three months as one might stand at the ocean trying to sweep back the tide. It's not that. ASIN: B000LZX0RO pp. The boys returned to the Loeb home where they burned Franks' clothing in a basement fire. I approved of it; I joined in the general cry of madness and despair. 281-317. At one time Leopold contemplated killing Loeb over a perceived breach of confidentiality. William Krohn testified, "In my opinion, [Richard Loeb] was not suffering from any mental disease, either functional or structural on May 21st, 1924." [65], Leopold died of a diabetes-related heart attack on August 29, 1971, at the age of 66. Later works, such as Compulsion (1959), adapted from Meyer Levin's 1957 novel; Swoon (1992); and Murder by Numbers (2002) were also based on the crime. The State of Illinois voided his charter, however, on grounds that it violated the terms of his parole. The prosecution argued that psychiatric testimony was only admissible if the defendants claimed insanity, while the defense argued strenuously that evidence of mental disease should be considered as a mitigating factor in consideration of the sentence. The best talent psychiatric talent 1924 had to offer was sought out by both sides to examine the defendants. In pleading for Loeb's life Darrow argued, "Nature is strong and she is pitiless. He wrote a book entitled The Birds of Puerto Rico. [6][7] He earned a master's degree at the University of Puerto Rico, then taught classes there; became a researcher in the social service program of Puerto Rico's department of health; worked for an urban renewal and housing agency; and did research on leprosy at the University of Puerto Rico's school of medicine. War is a part of it; education is a part of it; birth is a part of it; money is a part of it—all these conspired to compass the destruction of these two poor boys. Sign up for the American Experience newsletter! n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0; The two teenagers spent months discussing and refining a plan that included kidnapping the child of a wealthy parents, demanding a ransom, and collecting the ransom after it was thrown off a moving train as it passed a designated point. His neighbor, a brilliant young man, Nathan Leopold, was a law student and a believer in Frederick Nietzsche's concept of the "superman" — the idea that it is possible to rise above good and evil. He was obsessed with the idea of the perfect crime. [56], In 1959, Leopold sought unsuccessfully to block production of the film version of Compulsion on the grounds that Levin's book had invaded his privacy, defamed him, profited from his life story, and "intermingled fact and fiction to such an extent that they were indistinguishable. Franks, however would not get into the Yellow Cab that pulled up in front of his home. What did they do? Darrow knew his clients would be convicted. . 'https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js'); How many boys and girls, how many unborn children will feel it? You know it and I know it. Famous American Trials: Illinois v. Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb. In his book Life Plus Ninety-Nine Years, Leopold wrote that if asked to name the two men who "came closest to preaching the pure essence of love" he would say Jesus and Clarence Darrow. [6][7] In April he attempted to set up the Leopold Foundation, to be funded by royalties from Life Plus 99 Years, "to aid emotionally disturbed, retarded, or delinquent youths. He had just received another call, this one from the police, spoiling hope that the perfect crime would be executed. This was echoed by the prison's Catholic chaplain – a confidant of Loeb's – who said that it was more likely that Day had attacked Loeb after Loeb rebuffed his advances. He was not his own father; he was not his own mother....All of this was handed to him. Gluek concluded that Leopold has a "definitely paranoid personality" and was given to a "delusional way of thinking.". Addressing Leopold, Crowe said, "I wonder now, Nathan, whether you think there is a God or not. But in doing it you will turn your face toward the past. Defense psychiatrist William White testified that Leopold's "pathology began in early childhood." [70][better source needed], In his book Murder Most Queer (2014), theater scholar Jordan Schildcrout examines changing attitudes toward homosexuality in various theatrical and cinematic representations of the Leopold and Loeb case.[71]. I know the easy way. O never fear, lads, naught's to dread, / Look not left nor right: [23], Chicago police launched an intensive investigation; rewards were offered for information. The "real defense" in the case, according to Crowe, was "Clarence Darrow and his peculiar philosophy of life." . It was nothing. Leopold, N. Life Plus 99 Years (1958). [18], The pair put their carefully crafted plan in motion on the afternoon of May 21, 1924. Clever, but perhaps not accurate.