He is buried in tomb number 42 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. The loss of his beloved wife and their newborn child was devastating for Joseph, after which he felt keenly reluctant to remarry; though, he dearly loved his daughter and remained a devoted father to Maria Theresa. Feudalism finally ended in 1848. [10], Leopold developed and supported many social and economic reforms. On the second occasion, he was accompanied by Count Kaunitz, whose conversation with Frederick may be said to mark the starting point of the first partition of Poland. In 1702, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, Joseph saw his only military service. To further uniformity, the emperor made German the compulsory language of official business throughout the Empire, which affected especially the Kingdom of Hungary. His Imperial Patent of 1785 abolished serfdom but did not give the peasants ownership of the land or freedom from dues owed to the landowning nobles. [29] While Padover depicted a sort of New Deal Democrat, Nazi historians in the 1930s made Joseph a precursor of Hitler. Joseph's feelings towards religion are reflected in a witticism he once spoke in Paris. The ordinary people were not happy. The loss of his daughter was deeply traumatic for him and left him profoundly grief-stricken and scarred. The attempt failed after the King was recognized from the back of a coin. On the other hand, Joseph was very friendly to Freemasonry, as he found it highly compatible with his own Enlightenment philosophy, although he apparently never joined the Lodge himself. Maria Josepha, in turn, suffered considerable misery in finding herself locked in a cold, loveless union. He married Princess Isabella of Parma in October 1760, a union fashioned to bolster the 1756 defensive pact between France and Austria. He proceeded to attempt to realize his ideal of enlightened despotism acting on a definite system for the good of all. This failure caused Joseph to seek territorial expansion in the Balkans, where he became involved in an expensive and futile war with the Turks (1787–1791). Behind his numerous reforms lay a comprehensive program influenced by the doctrines of enlightened absolutism, natural law, mercantilism, and physiocracy. Multiple interferences with old customs began to produce unrest in all parts of his dominions.

He continued, for instance, to insist that no papal bull could be published in his dominions without his consent (placetum regium). These policies were violently rejected by both the nobility and the peasants,[8] since their barter economy lacked money. One reason for his resignation to be crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary might have been, that Alcuin had written in a letter to Charlemagne in 798: "And those people should not be listened to who keep saying the voice of the people is the voice of God, since the riotousness of the crowd is always very close to madness.". Some of his other sons were prominent personages in their day. He began the attempts to settle the question of the Austrian inheritance by a pragmatic sanction, which was continued by his brother Charles VI. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, and was the brother of Marie Antoinette. In 1789 he issued a charter of religious toleration for the Jews of Galicia, a region with a large Yiddish-speaking traditional Jewish population. Isabella's father was Philip, Duke of Parma.) His useful training was conferred by government officials, who were directed to instruct him in the mechanical details of the administration of the numerous states composing the Austrian dominions and the Holy Roman Empire.
The ordinary people were not happy. Never married. The marriage was never consummated and Maria Beatrice instead married Leopold's brother, Archduke Ferdinand.[4]. His mother Empress Maria Theresa was the last Habsburg, and he was one of 16 children. His brother Joseph II died without any surviving children, but Leopold in turn had also 16 children just like his mother, and became the founder of the main line of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. In November 1763, while six months pregnant, Isabella fell ill with smallpox and went into premature labor, resulting in the birth of their second child, Archduchess Maria Christina, who, having come too early, died shortly after being born. The declaration was a mere formality, for, as Leopold knew, neither Russia nor Britain was prepared to act, and he endeavored to guard against the use which he foresaw the émigrés would try to make of it. Lacking common interests or pleasures, the relationship offered little for Joseph, who confessed he felt no love (nor attraction) for her in return.

Territorial prince (Landesfürst) does not mean nationalist prince (Volksfürst). He asked that his epitaph read: "Here lies Joseph II, who failed in all he undertook." [28], The Austrian-born American scholar Saul K. Padover reached a wide American public with his colorful The Revolutionary Emperor: Joseph II of Austria (1934). From many of Joseph's regulations, enforced by a secret police, it looked to the Austrians as though Joseph were trying to reform their characters as well as their institutions.
Das Kunstwerk Joseph II (1741-90) Holy Roman Emperor and King of Germany - Jean-Étienne Liotard liefern wir als Kunstdruck auf Leinwand, Poster, Dibondbild oder auf edelstem Büttenpapier. His education was given to him through the writings of Voltaire and the Encyclopédistes, and by the example of King Frederick II of Prussia. On 24 February 1699, he married Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg in Vienna. Clergymen were deprived of the tithe and ordered to study in seminaries under government supervision, while bishops had to take a formal oath of loyalty to the crown. Although he was the first son and child born of his parents' marriage, he was his father's third son and seventh child. One thing the union did provide him was the improved possibility of laying claim to a portion of Bavaria, (though, this would ultimately lead to the War of the Bavarian Succession).