(standing in the future and looking at the other activity). See Complement. document.write( date_lastmod() );//-->. California has been trying to build a high-speed rail (train) as a clean-energy alternative for travel within the state. Will we have stopped looking at our differences and start seeing our common goals?   Permalink When denotes a point of time whereas by denotes an interval of time. [temporal location prepositional phrase], When expresses that the timing of one activity is the point of time for viewing the timing of another activity, "at the time" [X point of time], time-frame (N) — "window of time", a period of time, especially a specified period in which something occurs or is planned to take place, By may be followed by a noun or noun phrase with a specific point in time such as now, then or a calendar time or date. The system will extend from San Francisco and Sacramento, via the Central Valley, to Los Angeles and San Diego via the Inland Empire. (1) A present tense verb form is used in the by-the-time phrase when the main clause expresses present or future perfect timing. Parents stories of having carried backpacks with 60 pounds of books will be a  source of amusement for children. *They are usually eating dinner by the time we are arriving. Similar to 'Be home by the time dinner is ready.". (ongoing)   Permalink My kids will already be eating by the time I get home. By this time next year, we will have restored all the animated films. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" or "check 1-15" button. Past Tense is a novel by British writer Lee Child.This is the twenty-third book in the Jack Reacher series. "will have been giving" is not a verb form. The boundaries between entertainment and education will disappear. ¹ Until – "up to the time of" often includes an understood but not explicitly stated starting point. The boy who is waiting wants to talk to you. Huddleston, Rodney D., and Geoffrey K. Pullum. Irregular verbs have a variety of endings. The past perfect is formed with: had + past participle. The patterns with the main clause in either simple past or past perfect with the subordinate clause in the simple past seem to me to be the most useful patterns. I had studied English for several years before I traveled to the U.S. [email protected], There may be occasions where it is necessary or desirable to use any one of the possible combinations of past and past perfect, so I would not call it a rule. Will we have found a way to preserve our most precious resource by 2100? The boundaries between entertainment and education will disappear.   Report Abuse. They will have eaten dinner by the time we arrive. Will we have understood that violence and war only cause pain and despair? in this sentence By the time is used with the 2nd action, meaning ( more than 20 sailors died before the arrival of the rescue ship) we know that past perfect is 1st event and past simple is 2nd Will we be able to share earth's resources? pl.) See. They were eating dinner by the time we arrived. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" or "check 16-20" button. See passive forms. EnglishForward.com | The Internet's Largest Learn English Community | The High-Speed Rail Authority has come up with various solutions, raised and tunnel, so that communities will not be disturbed by the passing of the train. The start time is not important. (standing in the present and looking forward). By then, it hopes to have been made a final selection for a route to the San Francisco Bay Area. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. (temporal nouns). You will have been given the best education available by the time you graduate four years from now. However, by 2100, companies have replaced phone trees with human operators. (single or multiple events). (The tall boy wants to talk to you. "The activity occurred up to this time. Will we have stopped looking at our differences and start seeing our common goals? The lesson could have finished an hour ago or two minutes ago, it wouldn't make any difference to the sentence. Future perfect may also be expressed as an activity with passive voice: (1) the "patient" ("theme") of the activity becomes the subject of the clause; (2) the predicator changes to a passive verb form. Will life in the future be better, worse or the same as now? ", “The activity occurred sometime before but no later than X time.". The sun sets when I get home. They are usually eating dinner by the time we arrive. Clean water will be one of the most valuable resources. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE—PREDICTION: They will be eating dinner by the time we arrive. This word order is not used: *She had a chair not until she was 95. (our departure is the end-point), By leaving on time, we will have better traffic conditions.  (not being late). By then, it hopes to have been made a final selection for a route to the San Francisco Bay Area. Will life in the future be better, worse or the same as now? A comma separates the by-the-time clause from the main clause when it is placed initially (before). Future Statements - when, before, after, by the time. You may find yourself quotations from literature involving "by the past" by performing a search at: In first sentense 1.event is leaving,then he arrive.this sentence can be used (before he arrived,she left. The boy in the back of the room wants to talk to you. digitize (V) –  to convert to a digital form for use on a computer, archive (N or V) – a collection of historical records or film; to store records. By this time next year, all the animated films will have been restored. (Azar 17-2), In linguistic description of temporal location expressions, by the time  is a prepositional phrase (PP); that is, by (P) has as its complement— the time (NP); which has as its complement— a clause. Grammar Quizzes by Julie Sevastopoulos is licensed for use under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 International. *They ate dinner by the time we arrived. It is adverbial because it tells "when" the activity occurs. Will this hot, flat, and crowded world be "standing room only"?  People hope that by the year 2100, many problems will have being solved. FUNCTIONS: Subject:  Subject,   Predicate: Predicator (V) Complements: (elements required by verb) Object, Indirect Object, Predicative Complement  Adjuncts: (optional modifiers) Adj, Adv. or fill in the name and email fields below: 'By the time' is referring to 'arrived', not 'had finished'. By the time marks the end-point for the occurrence of an activity. Energy will come from a variety of sources: wind, air, solar, hydrogen fuel, and nuclear fusion. ", proposition (N) – a project requiring a vote of the people, task (N) – small project or job within a larger one. That is, the doer or source of the activity is the subject of the main clause.