N. Silberman, The Hidden Scrolls: Christianity, Judaism & the War for the Dead Sea Scrolls (1994), p.162. * At that time I knew nothing about abductions.  Death is the going-out of the breath which God once breathed into the dust (Genesis 2:7), all men face the same fate in Sheol, a shadowy existence without knowledge or feeling (Job 14:13; Qoheloth 9:5), and there is no way that mortals can enter heaven. , There is no concept of a human soul, or of eternal life, in the oldest parts of the Old Testament.  The Book of Enoch, dating from the period between the Old and New Testaments, separates the dead into a well-lit cavern for the righteous and dark caverns for the wicked, and provides the former with a spring, perhaps signifying that these are the "living" (i.e. designed by … This myth was taken up in later Jewish and Christian apocalyptic literature and projected into the future, so that cosmic battle becomes the decisive act at the end of the world's history: thus the Book of Revelation (end of the 1st century CE) tells how, after the God's final victory over the sea-monsters, New Heavens and New Earth shall be inaugurated in a cosmos in which there will be "no more sea" (Revelation 21:1). When I was newly saved (1980) I had an experience that reminds of an abduction.  This lake is either underground, or will go underground when the "new earth" emerges.
 Some biblical passages state that God has no presence in the underworld: "In death there is no remembrance of Thee, in Sheol who shall give Thee thanks?"
A New Translation - The Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 279. it touched) the farthest edges of the Earth (e.g.  In the "logos" (speech) model, God speaks and shapes unresisting dormant matter into effective existence and order (Psalm 33: "By the word of YHWH the heavens were made, and by the breath of his mouth all their hosts; he gathers up the waters like a mound, stores the Deep in vaults"); in the second, or "agon" (struggle) model, God does battle with the monsters of the sea at the beginning of the world in order to mark his sovereignty and power. If you are able to find 1 verse that unambiguously states the earth to be spinning or even moving (not just shaking), please email it to me at nathan@FlatEarthDoctrine.com.  Yet the underground waters are ambiguous: they are the source of life-giving rivers, but they are also associated with death (Jeremiah 2:6 and Job 38:16-17 describe how the way to Sheol is through water, and its gates are located at the foot of the mountain at the bottom of the seas). , The ancient Israelites envisaged a universe made up of a flat disc-shaped Earth floating on water, heaven above, underworld below. To me, this sounds like they were flying over Africa (from the Middle East), and coming to the South Pole, and watching the Southern Lights.
 He appears throughout the Old Testament not as God's enemy but as his minister, "a sort of Attorney-General with investigative and disciplinary powers", as in the Book of Job. Now they believe space is created along with the exploding matter.
A god dreaded in the Council of holy beings...?" In my view, space is not a real vacuum, but a room filled with a thin, not yet measurable, "fluidic" force-field, which is a conductor for light and electro-waves. , The New Testament Hades is a temporary holding place, to be used only until the end of time, when its inhabitants will be thrown into the pit of Gehenna or the Lake of Fire (Revelation 20:10–14). , Creation in the "agon" model takes the following storyline: (1) God as the divine warrior battles the monsters of chaos, who include Sea, Death, Tannin and Leviathan; (2) The world of nature joins in the battle and the chaos-monsters are defeated; (3) God is enthroned on a divine mountain, surrounded by lesser deities; (4) He speaks, and nature brings forth the created world, or for the Greeks, the cosmos.  Nor do the biblical texts necessarily represent the beliefs of all Jews or Christians at the time they were put into writing: the majority of those making up Hebrew Bible or Old Testament in particular represent the beliefs of only a small segment of the ancient Israelite community, the members of a late Judean religious tradition centered in Jerusalem and devoted to the exclusive worship of Yahweh.  Psalm 74 evokes the agon model: it opens with a lament over God's desertion of his people and their tribulations, then asks him to remember his past deeds: "You it was who smashed Sea with your might, who battered the heads of the monsters in the waters; You it was who crushed the heads of Leviathan, who left them for food for the denizens of the desert..." In this world-view the seas are primordial forces of disorder, and the work of creation is preceded by a divine combat (or "theomachy"). Biblical Cosmology The Bible describes the Earth as having a face , pillars , a firmament (hard surface), 4 corners , stationary and the footstool of the Yahuah. Therefore I like to call it the "electro-ocean". Linking "aliens" with the Sons of God in Genesis 6, What happened in the Beginning?
Each of the videos on this page are from teachers who teach a Biblically based cosmology.  The Bible was formed over many centuries, involving many authors, and reflects shifting patterns of religious belief; consequently, its cosmology is not always consistent. He has a Ph.D. in Linguistics from University College London. , The Babylonians had a more complex idea of heaven, and during the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE) the influence of Babylonian cosmology led to the idea of a plurality of heavens among Jews.  The remaining gods were now subject to Yahweh: "Who in the sky is comparable to Yahweh, like Yahweh among the divine beings? Interpreting those biblical passages which discuss cosmology causes a problem, When the passages are interpreted literally, they conflict with scientific beliefs that have been in place for centuries.
 One of their number is "the Satan", literally "the accuser", who travels over the Earth much like a Persian imperial spy, (Job dates from the period of the Persian empire), reporting on, and testing, the loyalty of men to God.
 It was only with the early Church Fathers that he was identified with the Serpent of the Garden of Eden and came to be seen as an active rebel against God, seeking to thwart the divine plan for mankind.  Rain, snow, wind and hail were kept in storehouses outside the raqia, which had "windows" to allow them in – the waters for Noah's flood entered when the "windows of heaven" were opened. Biblical Cosmology: The Implications for Bible Translation John R. Roberts John Roberts is a Senior Linguistics Consultant with SIL International.
 The Satan does not inhabit or supervise the underworld – his sphere of activity is the human world – and is only to be thrown into the fire at the end of time. , Two different models of the process of creation existed in ancient Israel.  The cosmic sea is the home of monsters which God conquers: "By his power he stilled the sea, by his understanding he smote Rahab!" (Job 26:12f). Bibeltemplet I WAS SAVED AND BAPTIZED in 1980, at 23 years of age, through an outpost mission in the small communities Stora Höga and Stenungsund, driven by the Pentecostal Assembly in Kungälv, in the west coast of Sweden. "Prove all things; hold fast that which is good."
 In the Book of Job the Council of Heaven, the Sons of God (bene elohim) meet in heaven to review events on Earth and decide the fate of Job.
 Heaven extended down to and was coterminous with (i.e. If you wish to watch the videos of teachers who teach a heretical cosmological view click here.  Other OT passages suggest that the sky rests on pillars (Psalm 75:3, 1 Samuel 2:8, Job 9:6), on foundations (Psalms 18:7 and 82:5), or on "supports" (Psalm 104:5), while the Book of Job imagines the cosmos as a vast tent, with the Earth as its floor and the sky as the tent itself; from the edges of the sky God hangs the Earth over "nothing", meaning the vast Ocean, securely supported by being tied to the sky (Job 26:7).  In this period too the older three-level cosmology in large measure gave way to the Greek concept of a spherical earth suspended in space at the center of a number of concentric heavens. - Scholarly discussion of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 6. One of them had green skin and a head that looked like that of a rhinoceros', and a big human-like body. The Samaritan Pentateuch identifies this mountain as Mount Gerizim, which the New Testament also implicitly acknowledges (John 4:20). Although some of the posts in this blog are from before 2008, this blog isn't that old. , In the Old Testament period, the Earth was most commonly thought of as a flat disc floating on water. 7. a spring) waters of life. , The Hebrew Bible depicted a three-part world, with the heavens (shamayim) above, Earth (eres) in the middle, and the underworld (sheol) below. 1 Thessalonians 5:21 (KJV). You can't travel through nothing.  The author of Revelation, however, assumed a flat Earth in 7:1.  In the Hellenistic period the Greek-speaking Jews of Egypt, perhaps under the influence of Greek thought, came to believe that the good would not die but would go directly to God, while the wicked would really die and go to the realm of Hades, god of the underworld, where they would perhaps suffer torment. , The three-part world of heavens, Earth and underworld floated in Tehom, the mythological cosmic ocean, which covered the Earth until God created the firmament to divide it into upper and lower portions and reveal the dry land; the world has been protected from the cosmic ocean ever since by the solid dome of the firmament. The big bang theory said that something exploded into a space that was already there to receive that which was exploding. , The idea that the Earth was a sphere was developed by the Greeks in the 6th century BCE, and by the 3rd century BCE this was generally accepted by educated Romans and Greeks and even by some Jews. 1.  The Psalms describe God sitting enthroned over the Flood (the cosmic sea) in his heavenly palace (Psalm 29:10), the eternal king who "lays the beams of his upper chambers in the waters" (Psalm 104:3). , In the New Testament Jesus' conquest of the stormy sea shows the conquering deity overwhelming the forces of chaos: a mere word of command from the Son of God stills the foe (Mark 4:35–41), who then tramples over his enemy, (Jesus walking on water - Mark 6:45, 47–51).
What the Bible really teaches about the heavens.
 Below that was a layer of water, the source of rain, which was separated from us by an impenetrable barrier, the firmament (Genesis 1:6–8).  Just as the abyss, the deepest deep, was the place for Chaos and Death, so God's temple belonged on the high mountain.
If you are able to find 1 verse that unambiguously states the earth to be globular/spherical, please email it to me at nathan@FlatEarthDoctrine.com. It's impossiBALL. Avi Katzman, Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 262. , In the ancient world, things did not exist until they were named: "The name of a living being or an object was ... the very essence of what was defined, and the pronouncing of a name was to create what was spoken.